The Essonne department was created on January 1, 1968, from the southern portion of the former department of Seine-et-Oise.
In 1969, the communes of Châteaufort and Toussus-le-Noble were separated from Essonne and added to the department of Yvelines.
Essonne belongs to the region of Île-de-France.
It has borders with the departments of:
All of northern Essonne department belongs to the Parisian agglomeration and is very urbanized. The south remains rural.
In descending order, the cities over 25,000 population are: Évry, Corbeil-Essonnes, Massy, Savigny-sur-Orge, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Viry-Châtillon, Athis-Mons, Palaiseau, Draveil, Yerres, Les Ulis, and Vigneux-sur-Seine. Milly-la-Forêt is an example of its more rural communes.
- L'École Polytechnique: Founded in 1794, L'Ecole Polytechnique is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in France. This university is ranked 10th in the world by Times Higher Education Supplement in 2005. Its campus is in the town of Palaiseau.
- Université de Paris-Sud: One of the best public schools in France, it is ranked 52nd by Academic Ranking of World Universities. It is best known for its physics department. Located in Orsay, Essonne, about 26,000 students are enrolled.
- The Headquarters of the Arianespace Company: A major commercial aerospace launcher, servicing companies who wish to launch satellites into space.
- Château de Montlhéry: Originally having been an ancient fort during Roman times, the first feudal lords began to inhabit the castle around 1000 AD. One major battle was fought in the castle during its lifetime. In 1465, Charles the Rash and French King Louis XI fought in the plains in front of the castle. In 1842, the reconstruction of the castle was started, and currently is being maintained by the local town of Montlhery
- Château de Courances
- The Forest of Sénart: Covering 3,500 hectares in area, this forest is very important to the local population. The local government has kept roads and agricultural companies from cutting down parts of this forest. There are roughly 2-3 million visitors a year, and the government spends 1.2 million euros a year maintaining the forest.
essonne in Aragonese: Essonne
essonne in Franco-Provençal: Èssona (dèpartement)
essonne in Catalan: Essonne
essonne in Chuvash: Эссонна (департамент)
essonne in Cebuano: Essonne
essonne in Welsh: Essonne
essonne in Danish: Essonne
essonne in German: Essonne
essonne in Spanish: Essonne
essonne in Esperanto: Essonne
essonne in Basque: Essonne
essonne in French: Essonne
essonne in Korean: 에손 주
essonne in Indonesian: Essonne
essonne in Italian: Essonne
essonne in Pampanga: Essonne
essonne in Latin: Exona (praefectura Franciae)
essonne in Lithuanian: Esonas (departamentas)
essonne in Dutch: Essonne (departement)
essonne in Japanese: エソンヌ県
essonne in Norwegian: Essonne
essonne in Norwegian Nynorsk: Essonne
essonne in Occitan (post 1500): Essonne (departament)
essonne in Low German: Essonne
essonne in Polish: Essonne (departament)
essonne in Portuguese: Essonne
essonne in Romanian: Essonne
essonne in Russian: Эссонна (департамент)
essonne in Slovak: Essonne (departement)
essonne in Slovenian: Essonne (departma)
essonne in Serbian: Есон
essonne in Finnish: Essonne
essonne in Swedish: Essonne
essonne in Vietnamese: Essonne
essonne in Tajik: Департаменти Эссонна
essonne in Chinese: 埃松省